Schema theory is now officially on MCT!
In a hurry – read: Schema Theory – A Quick Background
Have the time?
Dig in to: The Schema Theory overview page
New page on Systems Theory is now live!
Systems theorists study the interaction of an input through a system to its output, anything influencing this that isn’t part of the system can either be termed “environment” or “noise” depending on the operational definition of the system.
Check out the page here.
To manage your life in school takes a serious balancing act – I know this is a little departure from Mass Communication Theory but anyone who reads this site can learn something from my experience as both a student and professor. There are a few things that you need:
As someone who was recently a graduate student, has adjunct-ed a handful of classes in the last few years, and is currently a project manager I’ve gotten a great 360 degree perspective on how to juggle these things and what apps/processes work best. So first, file management. You have only two options here that are agile and free.
Dropbox – if you don’t have a dropbox account, go there and sign up immediately. You get a few free gigs of space just for signing up and don’t have to pay a cent if you don’t want to. Dropbox is great for two reasons – one: cloud storage (for both working and backup), and two: accessibility. The Web interface is easy to download/upload and you can access your files anywhere and it has amazing apps. Now there are quite a few other products that do this but here is where dropbox is different:
It creates a folder on your computer just like any other folder that will automatically sync itself to your account in the cloud. Boom. Never lose anything again. Computer blows up? No problem. All your files are sitting in your Dropbox account. No lost papers, theses, or research data. You can back up photos, everything. It also saves previous versions – you accidentally save after deleting half your paper? No worries – restore the backup. If you download the app, it works in conjunction with the Mailbox app to allow you to attach files to on your phone or tablet. Awesome. I don’t think I could survive without it.
In terms of collaboration you can share only specific folders with other users (think group projects) – this makes everything super easy to access and no more emailing around presentations. I highly, highly recommend it. Apps for all OSs and work beautifully even on those crappy library computers. Get it now.
Second is Google Drive. I use Google drive in conjunction with dropbox – most colleges use the gmail apps with your email address so there is a good chance you already have a drive account. I use these mostly for working documents that I’ll need at a moments notice and that get updated regularly – maintenance records, password and logins to every random thing you need to sign up for (Protip: Don’t type the whole password, just part of it so you can remember which one it is).
If you’re going to write it, save it, move on, I’d use Dropbox to store it – use Google Drive for collaboration documents that will need to evolve.
Either can work fine on their own, I’d suggest playing with them to see what combo works best for you.
Task management is a tricky one – but as you’ll have a good pile of deadlines to keep track of throughout the semester I’d recommend at least putting those in something digital.
Simple and often effective – Google Calendar and iCal are the two best – they sync to your phone, desktop and cloud. Always, always – at the start of a semester go through your due dates and enter them ALL in your calendar with a 1 week and 1 day reminder time. Best advice I’ve ever been given, you’ll stop missing deadlines and losing points on your papers needlessly.
By for my favorite task app is Wunderlist, It lets you set due dates, reminders, flag and assign (it offers shared to-do lists), attach files and have a list of sub tasks. Easy. Cheesy.
Also of note is iProcrastinate, very similiar but they have recently started charging for it. Native for Mac – worth a look if you aren’t a fan of Wunderlist.
Good old Pen and Paper – the old stand by, you can’t go wrong here – it’s cheap, doesn’t crash, and never needs to be charged.
Hopefully these tips can help you and your students – please share or leave any questions below!
The theory overview page for Framing theory is now live – please check it out!
Writing the title and abstract can be the easiest and most frustrating part of writing a research paper. There are two major things to keep in mind when writing your title and abstract:
The title should describe what you are studying and to what effect. For example, my thesis was called: The Hero Soldier: Portrayals of Soldiers in War Films (You can access it here if you are interested) This title hits all the main points:
What: soldiers as heroes
Where: war ﬁlms
Concept: the way they are portrayed
This covers the basics and only the basics, don’t include your research methods, your results, or your pet’s name (seriously). Hit the main points that people will:
That’s all. I didn’t call my thesis: A Qualitative In-depth Analysis of the Conception of the the Hero as Portrayed by Soldiers in War Films. I could have, because that’s what it is about, but it impedes comprehension. It needs to be to the point and convey exactly what that person will read.
Outside the title the abstract is the only place where someone can get a quick overview of your study, think of the title as the abstract-lite, without the conclusions or big words. Basically your abstract should only be a paragraph long (that’s 3-4 sentences MAX!). Don’t ramble on for 15 sentences. There are only a few basic things you need to cover in your abstract:
That’s it! The point of an abstract is to summarize your entire paper in a paragraph so someone looking at it can get a brief idea what it is about and determine if they want to keep reading the entire paper. If you can’t write a brief and succinct abstract then you clearly don’t know what your own paper is about.
The introduction should cover the same topics as your abstract but in a bit more detail.
You also need to include:
Many times, when beginning any writing project it is suggested that you start with a “hook” to get your reader interested in your topic, this is not necessary in a research paper. It can however, add to your paper. It’s acceptable but not required. After covering everything mentioned above, provide a one paragraph roadmap of your paper. This gives us an idea of how you will attack the rest of the document we are about to read. For example:
“In the following pages I will ﬁrst discuss the relevant literature and previously
conducted studies that relate to my study about goldﬁsh and their love for beer. Second, I then outline the method by which the research was conducted, followed last by a discussion of the results as well as future implications of the goldﬁsh/beer relationship.” You’ll notice that I use “I” in that statement. It is perfectly acceptable to use “I” from time to time in a paper as long as you don’t overuse it.
Protip: Don’t write your introduction ﬁrst. As it is a preview of the study it’s usually best to write your introduction and abstract last.
This is an excerpt from my eBook: How to Write a Research Paper, Proposal, or Thesis (grab it today, it’s free and I don’t ask for your email address to get it!)
In our digital age, most people have long forgotten or never been taught the art and science of written communication. We’ve progressed (or regressed depending on your point of view) from a time when it was commonplace to jot down a note or letter and drop it in the mail, not expecting someone to reply with fifteen minutes. We’ve come to a time where people legitimately don’t know the difference between “there” and “their,” and they’re using “4” instead of “for.”
But as scholars and humans we need to understand how to operate and interact in in our current digital age efficiently and effectively and without abbreviating the word “you” with “u” (seriously, how much time are you actually saving?) In any email, conversation, text, or messenger chat you have at work or in your personal life there are some key pieces of information and expectations that you need to set (and please learn proper grammar, but that’s a topic for a different article).
Many might write this approach off as specific to a workplace or business context, however these principles can aid you in all aspects of life and help you avoid some very sticky situations. And remember, these aren’t the principles for casual conversation, love letters, or catching up with an old friend. These are guidelines for actionable conversation, or when you want something to get done.
1. Set Expectations
This is the oft overlooked piece of clear communication that builds the foundation on which the rest of your message rests. First and foremost in any piece of written communication, you need to immediately let your recipient know what they are getting into, and what you want to get out of it.
Answer the “What’s happening?” Question. The first piece of this is your subject line or the first sentence in whatever you may be sending. “Hey” and “Question” aren’t helpful. Get to your point quickly – “Questions re: the one project from the other day” puts your message in the right context immediately and starts the receiver’s head churning away to pull up all the relevant info they have.
Also – set the foundation for our third principle (Next Steps) by quickly pointing out what you want to get out of the interaction. “I’m asking this question because I have a meeting with the client tomorrow… etc.” But we’ll get to that in a moment.
2. Supplying Context
Context is, simply put, all the information that person will need to respond to your questions, requests, or what have you. Give them everything they need. Be sure to:
Put simply context is the art of supplying a person with everything they need as part of your query, you want to make them as efficient as possible because, more often than not, it will mean you get back what you need more efficiently.
Most importantly try to think of all the questions that your recipient might have upon receiving your message. Answer them! No one likes 15 back and forth emails with one question in each. At very least you can cut the back and forth down significantly.
3. Next Steps
What happens next? At this point, we understand the context of our conversation, we know what’s expected or we have specific expectations of what going on. However, it is ALWAYS a great idea to spell out exactly what the other person should expect next. Now you don’t have to dictate this, it can certainly be a negotiation, but this piece of the interaction is crucial to wrapping up the topic or reason you contacted them and drawing the conversation to an end. Giving the person the right takeaways is crucial to accomplish before you bring your interaction to an end.
There are a few ways to do this:
Simply, tell them what happens next. This is specifically good if in an email, letter, or text message. Something where there isn’t a guaranteed immediate response. A few examples of this would be something to the effect of:
“Thanks for taking the time to ready my resume and cover letter, I’ll be following up with you early next week.”
“If I don’t hear back from you I’ll assume the new website copy is approved and post it Wednesday of next week.” This is an interesting technique, and one to be used sparingly. If they miss it, and you move ahead you can create issues. But on a pressing deadline grabbing the bull by the horns and dictating the course of action can be a big problem solver.
Ask what happens next. While this seems like a no brainer, putting the ball in the other interlocutor’s court (that’s the $15 word of the day) is a perfectly acceptable way to keep things moving – examples of this:
“Now that I’ve provided all the research and background materials you requested, what are the next steps? Let me know what else you need from me!”
“Based on past projects, I assume that next we’ll be moving on to X, Y, then Z. Can you confirm?”
…and above all, be concise! No one likes a four page War and Peace email, letter, text message, or IM. Hit these main points, and move on:
Crafting written communication in this way is helpful in that, when done correctly, can get you what you need quickly. If you supply all the info, knowledge, and expectations up front you can save yourself 30 back and forth emails (or at least cut that number down significantly), and make you a better communicator.
Here is the overview of everything contained in the ~40 page eBook. It contains detailed sections on how to write:
A new version is coming soon! Check back later.